Category Archives: Science

Imam Al-Bukhari and The Science of Hadith

In Islamic sciences, all knowledge of the religion comes back to two sources: the Quran and the sayings and doings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ– the hadith. The Quran is of course considered the un-changed word of Allah as revealed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺand is thus the foundation of all Islamic knowledge. Second after the Quran is the example set forth by the Prophet ﷺ.

But considering that he lived 1400 years ago, how can we be sure that the sayings and doings we attribute to him are real and unchanged? To someone unfamiliar with the science of hadith, the collections of hadith may seem unreliable and susceptible to corruption. However, due to the work of Imam Muhammad al-Bukhari in the 9th century, the science of hadith has been protected from such problems using a systematic and thorough method of verification for each and every saying attributed to the Prophet ﷺ. Thus, in the 21st century we can still benefit directly from the authentic sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

Al-Bukhari’s Early Life

Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari was born in 809 or 810 in the city of Bukhara, in what is now Uzbekistan. He came from a Persian family that converted to Islam 3 generations before his time. Unfortunately for the young al-Bukhari, his father died while he was still an infant, leaving his upbringing to his mother. Despite the difficult circumstances, al-Bukhari dedicated himself to studying Islamic sciences from a young age.

Studying with the scholars in and around his hometown, al-Bukhari immersed himself in hadith studies as well as fiqh, Islamic jurisprudence. From a young age he showed a unique ability to understand complex issues of law, but more importantly, he was capable of remembering long and complex chains of narrations of hadiths. For a hadith to be considered authentic, a reliable chain of narrators is needed to connect that saying to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. In this, al-Bukhari excelled.

By his late teens, al-Bukhari had completed his studies in Bukhara and set out to Makkah to do Hajj (pilgrimage) with his mother and brother. Since the rise of Islam in the 600s, Makkah has been a unique mixing place for world travelers. Since all Muslims are obligated to complete the Hajj at least once, Makkah is constantly visited by people from all corners of the world. For a hadith scholar like al-Bukhari, this type of environment was invaluable.

He stayed in Makkah and Madinah for several years, where he continued to collect hadiths from some of the leading hadith scholars of the world, memorizing the text of the hadiths (the matn), the chain of narrators (the isnad), and advancing his understanding of the reliability of those narrators (the knowledge of men – ‘ilm al-rijaal). He traveled through Egypt, Syria, and Iraq to continue his studies throughout his adult life, finally settling in Basra, where he would compile his monumental hadith collection.

Sahih al-Bukhari

Although Imam al-Bukhari authored several works on the science of hadith, his most lasting contribution to Islamic sciences was his compilation of over 7000 hadiths, which he called al-Jaami’ al-Sahih al-Musnad al-Mukhtasar min Umur Rasool Allah wa sunanihi wa Ayyamihi, meaning “The Abridged Collection of Authentic Hadith with Connected Chains regarding Matters Pertaining to the Prophet, His practices and His Times”. This collection took him 16 years to complete and since its compilation has been considered the most authentic book of hadith in history, thus the book’s common name: Sahih al-Bukhari meaning “The Authentic Hadiths of al-Bukhari”.

What makes Sahih al-Bukhari so unique was Imam al-Bukhari’s meticulous attention to detail when it came to the compilation of hadiths. He had far stricter rules than other hadith scholars for accepting a hadith as authentic. The chain of narrators for a particular hadith had to be verified as authentic and reliable before Imam al-Bukhari would include that hadith in his compilation. For example, the first hadith in the book begins:

“We have heard from al-Humaydi Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr who said that he heard from Sufyan, who said he heard from Yahya ibn Sa’eed al-Ansari who said he was informed by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Taymi that he heard ‘Alqama ibn Waqqas al-Laythi say that he heard ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab say on the sermon pulpit that he heard the Prophet Muhammad ﷺsay: ‘Actions are only by intentions…’”

This chain of six narrators was meticulously inspected by Imam al-Bukhari. In order for him to consider the hadith authentic, he had to study the lives of all the people in the chain in depth. He studied where and when the narrators lived, in order to make sure that if someone narrates from someone else, they must both have been in the same place at the same time and have actually met and discussed hadith. Other hadith scholars did not all require evidence that two consecutive narrators met personally, but Imam al-Bukhari’s strict requirements is what makes his compilation unique.

Imam al-Bukhari also studied the lives of narrators, to make sure they were trustworthy and would not fabricate, or change the wording of a hadith. If he discovered that someone in a chain openly sinned or was not considered trustworthy, that hadith was immediately discarded and not included in his book unless a stronger chain for it existed.

Using his strict guidelines for hadith acceptance, Imam al-Bukhari was the first to make a systematic approach to classifying hadith. Each hadith he analyzed was labelled as either sahih (authentic), hasan (good), mutawatir (recurrent in many chains), ahad (solitary), da’eef (weak), or mawdu’ (fabricated). This system for hadith then became the standard by which all hadiths were classified by other hadith scholars.

 

Imam al-Bukhari’s Fiqh

Imam al-Bukhari’s collection of hadiths is a monumental achievement and an irreplaceable cornerstone of the science of hadith scholarship. Through his work, hadith studies became a science with governing laws that protected the field from innovations and corruptions. However, his Sahih is not just a simple collection of hadiths. Al-Bukhari organized his collection in a way that it can also be used to help deduce rulings within Islamic law – fiqh.

The Sahih is divided into 97 books, each with numerous chapters within it. Each chapter is then titled with a ruling on a particular issue within fiqh. Then within the chapter will be all the hadiths that he considered authentic that support that ruling. For example, the chapter about extra prayer during the month of Ramadan (Taraweeh) is titled “The Superiority of Extra Prayers at Night in Ramadan” and it contains six sayings of the Prophet ﷺthat indicate how important the Taraweeh prayer is.

Thus, not only is Sahih al-Bukhari the most authentic book of hadith ever compiled, but Imam al-Bukhari also had the foresight to organize it into a book of law that helps everyday Muslims live their lives as close to the life of the Prophet ﷺas possible. His monumental work would go to inspire generations of hadith scholars, including al-Bukhari’s student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, who would go on to collect Sahih Muslim, which is considered second only to Sahih al-Bukhari in authenticity.

One of the common accusations made by non-Muslims against Islamic sciences and the study of hadith is that there is no way of verifying the hadith and that they should not be used as a source of belief or law. This argument is based on a very rudimentary and flawed understanding of how the hadith were collected and the incredible amount of effort scholars such as al-Bukhari put into verifying their authenticity. With the monumental work of al-Bukhari and other scholars of hadith, we have been able to know what words and actions can truly be attributed to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺeven 1400 years after his life.

Source : LostIslamicHistory

 

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Quran And Science

بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمـَنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

Does the Qur’an agree or disagree with Evolution.

Allah’s Creation, Ordering, Sustenance, and

Maintenance of All Things

 

 

In what follows I plan to initially make absolutely clear from the Qur’an what Allah says about his creation and design in the Universe and all that is in it.

 

It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on the earth; Moreover His design comprehended the heavens, for He gave order and perfection to the seven firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect knowledge.

(2:29)

 

  • Created everything on earth for us
  • Ordered and perfected the heavens.

 

Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draws the night as a veil over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher andSustainer of the worlds!

(7:54)

 

  • Created the universe
  • Caused the night and day to exist (by his creation of solar system etc.) and follow one another
  • Specifies that our sun, moon and all the stars and made function according to his law.
  • Allah sustains all things

 

Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, and He is firm in power, regulating and directing all affairs, there is no intercessor except after His permission; this is Allah, your Lord, therefore serve Him; will you not then mind?

(10:3)

 

  • Created the universe
  • Regulated and directs all things

 

Do ye not see that Allah has subjected/made of benefit to you all things in the heavens and on earth, and has made his bounties flow to you in exceeding measure, (both) seen and unseen? Yet there are among men those who dispute about Allah, without knowledge and without guidance, and without a Book to enlighten them!

(31:20)

 

  • All things created for our use and benefit

 

He has created you from a single being, then made its mate of the same (kind), and He has created/sent down for you eight of the livestock in pairs. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers– a creation after a creation– in triple darkness; that is Allah your Lord, His is the kingdom; there is no Allah but He; whence are you then turned away?

(39:6)

 

  • Mankind comes from one created pair
  • Created for use livestock, 4 pairs
    • From 6:143-144 they are: Sheep pair, goat pair, camel pair and cattle/cow-bull pair.
  • Creates us in stages in our mother’s wombs

 

The Originator of the heavens and the earth! How can He have a child, when there is for Him no consort, when He created all things and is Aware of all things?

(6:101)

 

  • Created all things
  • Created the heavens and the earth

 

Have they not then observed the sky above them, how We have constructed it and beautified it, and how there are no rifts therein?

And the earth- We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and produced therein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)-

To be observed and commemorated by every devotee turning (to Allah).

And We send down from the sky rain charted with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens and Grain for harvests;

And tall (and stately) palm-trees, with shoots of fruit-stalks, piled one over another;-

A sustenance for the servants, and We give life thereby to a dead land; thus is the rising.

(50:6-11)

 

  • Created and beautified the heavens
  • Spread the earth, continental drift
  • Set up the mountains for us
  • Produced every kind of growth/plant for us
  • Sends down rain from the sky for us
  • Produces with the rain gardens etc…
  • Grains and palm trees

 

He created the heavens without pillars, you see that, and put mountains upon the earth lest it might shake with you, and He spread in it animals of every kind; and We sent down water from the cloud, then caused to grow therein (vegetation) of every noble kind.

(31:10)

 

  • Created the heavens without pillars
  • Put up mountains for stability
  • Spread animals about the planet
  • Sends down rain
  • Causes growth of vegetation thereby

 

Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and sent down water from the sky, then brought forth with it fruits as a sustenance for you, and He has made the ships subject/of use to you, that they might run their course in the sea by His command, and He has made the rivers subject/of use to you.

And He has made subject/of use to you the sun and the moon pursuing their courses, and He has made subject/of use to you the night and the day.

And He gives you of all that you ask Him; and if you count Allah’s favors, you will not be able to number them; most surely man is very unjust, very ungrateful.

(14:32-34)

 

  • Creator of the Universe
  • Sends down rain and causes the fruit to grow
  • Makes the sun and moon of use to us.
  • Made the rivers of use to us
  • Made ships of use to us

 

Glorify the name of your Lord, the Most High,

Who hath created, and further, given order and proportion;

Who hath ordained laws. And guides them;

And Who brings out the pasture,

Then makes it dried up, dust-colored.

(87:1-5)

 

  • Created all things, gave them order.
  • Ordains laws and guides all things to follow them.
  • Brings out the growth/pasture.
  • Then brings it to its end.

 

Who perfected all He created, and He began the creation of man from clay;

(32:7)

 

  • Mankind’s creation was originally from clay,
  • All that Allah created, he perfected.

 

And Allah has created every animal from water: of them there are some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills for verily Allah has power over all things.

(24:45)

 

  • Allah created every animal from water in substance, not origin.
  • Allah creates whatever he wills.

 

By the Night as it conceals (the light);

And the day when it shines in brightness,

And the creating of the male and the female,

(92:1-3)

 

  • Both the male and the female were created (and poetically contrasted to the pair of night and day)

 

Do they not look at the earth,- how many noble things of all kinds We have produced therein? Most surely there is a sign in that, but most of them will not believe.

(26:7-8)

 

  • Allah points us to his creation of all the creatures around us.

 

Who created you, formed/arranged you, then made you balanced

Into whatever form He pleased He constituted/assembled you.

(82:7-8)

 

  • Allah created arranged and balanced mankind in their creation.

 

See they not that it is We Who have created for them – among the things which Our hands have fashioned – livestock, which are under their dominion?-

And We have subjected them to them, so some of them they have to ride upon, and some of them they eat. And therein they have advantages and drinks; will they not then be grateful?

(36:71-73)

 

  • Allah created livestock and made them of use to us and put them under our dominion for our use.

 

 

Summary

 

Allah created the universe and everything in it and has subjected them to our use and benefit.

The Verses Used by ‘Muslim’ Evolutionists to Try and Justify the Muslim Acceptance of Evolution…  And the Response.

 

Most surely there is a party amongst those who distort the Book with their tongue that you may consider it to be (a part) of the Book, and they say, It is from Allah, while it is not from Allah, and they tell a lie against Allah whilst they know.

(3:78)

 

It is nothing new that people Muslims or not would try to distort the words of Allah and make them mean something which is not at all from Allah.  In modern times, one of the ways this has expressed itself is in the fact that a number of Muslims have swallowed the theory of evolution and have then seen fit to try and say that Evolution is indicated in the Qur’an and make other Muslims believe also…  They triply mess up here as they: –

 

  1. Commit a form of shirk by ascribing to Allah’s creation powers only Allah has
  2. They willingly distort the word of Allah
  3. They lead others into shirk and distortion of Allah’s word

 

 

1st Verse

 

And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: Wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.

(2:30)

 

The argument here is how did the angels know that humans would be like that unless perhaps there were already some proto-humans or savage humans already that they could witness.  The answer to this is two-fold:-

 

First: –

 

They said: Glory be to Thee! we have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.

(2:32)

 

All knowledge that the angels have is from Allah, and so Allah would have given this information to them.

 

Second: –

 

The Jinn, who, like the Humans to be created, have free will, obviously also sinned and killed etc…  And so the angels could have figured by analogy to free will that humans would do the same.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2nd Verse

 

What is the matter with you that you fear not the greatness of Allah?

“‘Seeing that it is He that has created you in stages?(1)

Do you not see how Allah has created the seven heavens ,~ one above another,

And made the moon therein a light, and made the sun a lamp?

And Allah has caused you to grow out of the earth (as) a growth(2)

Then He returns you to it, then will He bring you forth a (new) bringing forth

(71:13-18)

 

(1)

 

O Mankind! If you are in doubt about the raising, then surely We created you from dust, then from a drop of fluid, then from a clinging thing, then from a lump of flesh, formed and unformed, that We may make clear to you;

 and We cause what We please to stay in the wombs till an appointed time, then We bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity; and of you is he who is caused to die, and of you is he who is brought back to the worst part of life, so that after having knowledge he does not know anything; and you see the earth sterile land, but when We send down on it the water, it stirs and swells and brings forth of every kind a beautiful herbage.

(22:5 (40:67 also))

 

The stages referred in (71:14) are the embryonic stages mentioned in the verse above.  This is blatantly obvious…

 

Also, to clarify, Adam was created from the ground//clay and his progeny from a drop of mingled fluids, this is clarified below.

 

Who mastered/perfected everything that He has created, and He began the creation of man from dust.  Then He made his progeny of an extract, of water held in light estimation. Then He proportioned him and breathed into him of His spirit, and made for you the ears and the eyes and the hearts; little is it that you give thanks.

(32:7-9)

 

(2)

 

This refers to the fact that we get all our nourishment from the earth (even through animals and plants that get theirs from the earth) and grow from babies to kids to adults, and sustain ourselves by it, in a manner like plants and all other creatures do.

 

Note also 32:7-9 here…

 

3rd Verse

 

Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing (worthy of being) mentioned?

(76:1)

 

This verse has been inaccurately translated with the quotes above, and so evolutionist ‘Muslims’ , interpreted that ‘not worth mentioning’ meant that there were some primitive proto-humans so pathetic as to not even be worth a mention.

 

In reality, the term in the brackets and anything like it have no basis in the Arabic.  All this verse is correctly stating is that there was a time in the heavens and the earth, the universe, when man did not exist, and so was not mentioned.

 

 

4th Verse

 

Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?

(21:30)

 

Here evolutionists interpret this verse to mean that all living creatures share the same evolutionary origin, the waters of the seas and oceans.  The correct interpretation is that Allah is telling the common material from which the living creatures of the world were created as the next verse clarifies.

 

And Allah has created from water every living creature: some of them move on their bellies, and some of them walk upon two feet, and some of them walk upon four; Allah creates what He pleases; surely Allah has power over all things.

(24:45)

 

 

To Drive the Point Home on Human Creation!

 

 

O mankind! What has beguiled you from your Lord, the Gracious one, Who created you, proportioned you, then made you balanced?  Into whatever form He pleased He constituted/assembled you.

(82:6-8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Verses that Encourage Muslims to Science and Define its Philosophy

 

 

The Qur’an is full of verses that encourage us to explore the universe and all that is in it in order to appreciate his signs.  I will go through a number of examples of such verses and end up explaining why Qur’anic science is not only perfectly good, but in fact better than materialistic science.

 

Soon will We show them our Signs in the horizons and in themselves, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord witnesses all things?

(41:53)

 

This is the promise of Allah that He will show us his signs everywhere, from the horizons as far as we can see to our very selves…  In the 7th century, we could marvel at what we saw, but As Allah knows, the time will come when we will be able to probe all things, from the vastness of the universe to the minuteness of what makes our bodies and Allah’s majesty will be manifest.

 

Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind; in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they Trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth;- (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that think

(2:164)

 

Here we have the following sciences pointed to: –

 

  • Astronomy and astrophysics (universe and solar system)
  • Hydrology, water and its properties
    • Rain, water cycle
  • Soil studies.  Pedology
  • Plant growth and its relation to water.  Botany
  • Biology of living creature and their distribution on earth
  • Wind and clouds, which along with rain leads to Meteorology

 

And the driving motive for Muslim scientific endeavour is also highlighted, namely, the appreciation of Allah’s signs…  So that as we grow in knowledge, we truly appreciate the next verse: –

 

Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for those with understanding.

Those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord! You have not created this in vain! Glory be to You; save us then from the chastisement of the fire:

(3:190-191)

Have they not then observed the sky above them, how We have constructed it and beautified it, and how there are no rifts therein?

And the earth- We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and produced therein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)-

be observed and commemorated by every devotee turning (to Allah).

And We send down from the sky rain charted with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens and Grain for harvests;

And tall (and stately) palm-trees, with shoots of fruit-stalks, piled one over another;-

A sustenance for the servants, and We give life thereby to a dead land; thus is the rising.

(50:6-11)

 

  • Astronomy and astrophysics
  • Geology (Mountain formation and continental drift)
  • Botany
  • Hydrology
  • Pedology (the soil its relation to water and plant growth)

 

Most surely in the variation of the night and the day, and what Allah has created in the heavens and the earth, there are signs for a people who guard (against evil).

Surely those who do not hope in Our meeting and are pleased with this world’s life and are content with it, and it is those who are heedless of Our signs:

(10:6-7)

 

  • A reminder of the function of science
  • A reminder that not everyone will see the signs

 

Do they not consider that We have made the night that they may rest therein, and the day to give light? Most surely there are signs in this for a people who believe.

(27:86)

 

  • Study of sleeping patterns as related to the night-day phenomenon and their importance.  Somnology.

 

Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars as you see, and He is firm in power and He made the sun and the moon of service (to you); each one pursues its course to an appointed time; He regulates the affair, making clear the signs that you may be certain of meeting your Lord.

And He it is Who spread the earth and made in it firm mountains and rivers, and of all fruits He has made in it two kinds; He makes the night cover the day; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.

And in the earth there are tracts side by side and gardens of grapes and corn and palm trees having one root and (others) having distinct roots– they are watered with one water, and We make some of them excel others in fruit; most surely there are signs in this for a people who understand.

(13:2-4)

 

  • Geology, plate tectonic (spreading the earth/continental drift and mountain formation)
  • Botany (fruits)
    • With a pointer to analyse why some fruits are better than others, Genetics
    • And Pedology.
  • The functions and benefits of the sun moon system in relation to us as well as their motion and courses, Astrophysics.

 

Do ye not see that Allah has subjected/made of benefit to you all things in the heavens and on earth, and has made his bounties flow to you in exceeding measure, (both) seen and unseen? Yet there are among men those who dispute about Allah, without knowledge and without guidance, and without a Book to enlighten them!

(31:20)

 

  • The analysis of all the factors in the universe which make life good and possible.
    • The design of the universe, our solar system and earth
    • All science in one go!

 

And He it is Who has made the sea subservient/of use to you that you may eat fresh flesh from it and bring forth from it ornaments which you wear, and you see the ships cleaving through it, and that you might seek of His bounty and that you may give thanks.

And He has set up on the earth, mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads; that ye may guide yourselves;

And landmarks; and by the stars they find the right way.

Is He then Who creates like him who does not create? Do you not then reflect?

(16:14-17)

 

  • Oceanography (study of the oceans and seas)
  • Marine biology (fresh flesh and ornaments from the sea/ocean)
  • Geology
    • Mountain function in relation to stability of the earth’s crust, plate tectonics
  • Astronomy (studying star patterns to aid in navigation)

 

Do they not see the birds, controlled in the atmosphere of the sky? None withholds them but Allah; most surely there are signs in this for a people who believe.

(16:79)

 

  • Aerodynamics
    • And its relation to the earths atmosphere.
  • Ornithology (Study of birds)

 

And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know.

And among His Signs is the sleep that ye take by night and by day, and your seeking of His bounty: verily in that are signs for those who hearken.

And among His Signs, He shows you the lightning, by way both of fear and of hope, and He sends down rain from the sky and with it gives life to the earth after it is dead: verily in that are Signs for those who reason.

(30:21-24)

 

  • Genetics (analysis of why we differ in colour)
  • Linguistics (study of languages)

 

 

And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in (men’s) habitations;  Then eat of all the fruits and walk in the ways of your Lord submissively. There comes forth from within it a beverage of many colours, in which there is healing for men; most surely there is a sign in this for a people who reflect.

(16:68-69)

 

  • Entomology (study of insects)
  • Medicine (study of the healing qualities of honey)

 

Have you not seen those who practice hypocrisy? They say to those of their brethren who disbelieve from among the followers of the Book: If you are driven forth, we shall certainly go forth with you, and we will never obey any one concerning you, and if you are fought against, we will certainly help you, and Allah bears witness that they are most surely liars.

Certainly if these are driven forth, they will not go forth with them, and if they are fought against, they will not help them, and even if they help-them, they will certainly turn (their) backs, then they shall not be helped.

You are certainly greater in being feared in their hearts than Allah; that is because they are a people who do not understand

They will not fight against you in a body save in fortified towns or from behind walls; their fighting between them is severe, you may think them as one body, and their hearts are disunited; that is because they are a people who do not reason.

(59:11)

 

  • Psychology (analysis of hypocrite thinking patterns)

 

Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the End of those before them,- though they were superior to them in strength? Nor is Allah to be frustrated by anything whatever in the heavens or on earth: for He is All-Knowing. All-Powerful.

(35:44)

 

  • Archaeology and History (study of previous generation in the evidence left on the earth)

 

And there is no animal that walks upon the earth nor a bird that flies with its two wings but (they are) communities like yourselves; We have not neglected anything in the Book, then to their Lord shall they be gathered

(6:38)

 

Ecology.  The study of animal communities.

 

Do they not consider how Allah originates the creation, then reproduces it? Surely that is easy to Allah.

Say: Travel in the earth and see how He makes the first creation, then Allah creates the latter creation; surely Allah has power over all things.

(29:19-20)

 

Paleontology and Paleobiology

 

 

The chiefs of the Unbelievers among his people said: “He is no more than a man like yourselves: his wish is to assert his superiority over you: if Allah had wished (to send messengers), He could have sent down angels; never did we hear such a thing (as he says), among our ancestors of old.”

(23:24)

 

And We never sent a warner to a town/city except that the affluent/wealthy in it said: We are surely disbelievers in what you are sent with.

And they say: We have more wealth and children, and we shall not be punished.

Say: “Verily my Lord enlarges and restricts the Provision to whom He pleases, but most men understand not.”

(34:34-36)

 

Sociology.  Study of social order and its effects on the masses.

 

Why do I say that all these verse and more point to scientific endeavour?  Simple: –

 

1     Allah tells us that in the universe and everything in it are signs of his power and creation.

2     We are pointed to many things and told to consider and that those with knowledge and understanding will see it best.

 

If Allah tells us that these are signs of his work and creation, and if Allah asks us to investigate and consider them, then this means very simply that we should!

 

How do we investigate animal communities?

How do we investigate the solar system and the universe as a whole?

How do we investigate the way plants grow?

How do we investigate mountain formation?

How do we investigate the water cycle?

Etc etc…

 

To do all these we would need the tools and theory to analyse and grasp the data, in short, Science uninhibited with materialistic philosophy

  

 

 

 

 

Is There a Danger in leaving Allah into Science?

The Qur’anic Model of Science

 

A common argument launched by materialists who are confronted with the logical flaws of their ideological dictatorship is to frantically assert that if we allow for non material causes, namely acts of Allah, then we might as well just throw up our hands and give up on science and go back to the dark ages where everybody just blindly believed in miracles and were too scared to understand anything lest it should incur the wrath of their vengeful Allah.

 

To this I would respond by making the following points: –

 

1     That the world and the universe around us function in an orderly manner is obvious for all to see.

2     To appreciate that structures are created does not cause them to stop functioning in an orderly manner.

3     Realising that something is created does not stop us from understanding how it functions in exquisite detail.

4     The conclusion that something is created is one that is very possible to reach even without the guidance of the Qur’an.

5     The Qur’anic model of science  which fully accepts the creation of Allah: –

5.1           Does not labour under demonstrably false assumptions (materialism) .

5.2           Does not hinder scientific insight and investigations by artificially limiting the possible answers to materialist ones.

5.2.1       Consider, evolutionists have to assume without question that animals can evolve by random mutation/genomic change and natural selection.  They are not allowed to accept and pursue findings which disprove this belief, only models of how this belief may work.

5.2.1.1    That is why Cambridge palaeontologist Simon Conway Morris, writing for the premier biology journal Cell, remarks: “When discussing organic evolution the only point of agreement seems to be: ‘It happened.’ Thereafter, there is little consensus….” (Jan. 7, 2000)

5.3           The Qur’anic model of science makes the work of science both an exciting investigation and journey to understand the creation of the All Mighty, but also brings with it the other benefits of science, comfort, protection and knowledge.

 

As Muslims we fear nothing in understanding the universe, that which is in it and how it works; to do so is merely to fulfils an Islamic duty.  We do not see understanding the universe as taking away from the greatness of Allah, we see it as helping us to appreciate ever more the power and wisdom of Allah.

http://www.detailedquran.com